Undoubtedly, Kyrgyzstan is not the most remarkable country in terms of architecture. The way of life of nomads did not contribute to the emergence of cities and buildings. However, there is also something to see.
The main historical monuments of the country belong to the medieval period, namely to the era of the reign of the Karakhanids in the 10th – 12th century, the capitals of which were located in Kyrgyzstan. The first capital was Balasagun, the remains of it are now located 10 kilometers from Tokmok in the Chui Valley. The Burana Tower, as well as the remains of fortresses and imposing burial mounds show that in the 11th – 12th centuries there was a city of great importance for the region. The second capital of the Karakhanids was Uzgen. In Uzgen, to this days are preserved mausoleums and the minaret. Other monuments of the Karakhanid era are the mausoleum of Shah-Fazil, as well as the mausoleum in the complex of Manas-Ordo. A common feature of the Karakhanid buildings is the decor with artful carving, which is strikingly different from the buildings of the same period in Samarkand or Bukhara.
To later monuments of architecture is the Tashrabat caravanserai, which is located far in the mountains and completely built of stone. The caravanserai was built in the 15th-century.
The next period of development of architecture and new cultural monuments were the 19th and 20th centuries when the Russian Empire came to the region. Thus, one the main tourist center of Kyrgyzstan – Karakol – shows tourists unique for the region Old Russian architecture. The Soviet period is characterized by the construction of modernist and constructivist architecture, buildings of which can be seen in major cities of the country – primarily in Bishkek.